Tranlated by Wang Zhen，proofread by Li Kaixuan
Abstract: The development of the International Communist Movements and world socialist development in 2021 consisted of several major events: First, the Communist Party of China celebrated its centenary, and the glorious achievements of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics have won admiration and anticipation from various countries around the world. Second, many existing socialist countries had convened their new Party Congresses respectively to actively fight the epidemic and promote economic and social development. Third, non-ruling communist parties fought through parliamentary struggle and other forms, and made adaptive adjustments to seek space for survival and development. At the same time, in order to learn from history and respond to real challenges, the communist parties and Marxist scholars all over the world reviewed the historical experience and lessons of the Paris Commune and the disintegration of Soviet Union, and revisited the revolutionary ideas of the early revolutionary of the International Communist Movements. In 2022, the continued pandemics of COVID-19 and the outbreak of war between Russia and Ukraine have increased the risk of war waged by imperialists. The International Communist Movements are facing new shocks. However, the centennial historical monument of the Communist Party of China will inspire the communist parties around the world to keep firm direction and continue to march towards tomorrow’s glory.
Keywords: International Communist Movements; World socialism; Foreign Communist parties; The relationship between two systems; The 100th Anniversary of the Founding of the Communist Party of China
The year 2021 marked the centennial anniversary of the founding of both the Communist Party of China (CPC) and many communist parties in other countries. After a century of vicissitudes, the Communist Party of China has made brilliant achievements today. Meanwhile, the communist parties in Europe and North America are facing hardships and challenges, and the communist parties in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe countries are witnesses of their tortuous development history of socialism. All the parties jointly have built a magnificent picture of the International Communist Movements and the development of world socialism in the past 100 years. Standing at such an important historical moment, the communist parties and Marxist scholars of all countries conscientiously summarized historical experience and lessons, reviewed the historical merits and ideological essence of proletarian revolutionaries, earnestly faced realistic challenges from historical mirror, and continued to firm the socialist development path and the communist ideal and faith.
1. The Review on the Vicissitudes of History and the Revolutionary Characters of International Communist Movements
1.1. The Historical Status and Far-Reaching Significance of Paris Commune
On March 18, 1871, in order to overthrow the bourgeois state machine, the proletariat carried out a violent revolution in Paris, France. And, on March 28, they established the first proletarian dictatorship, Paris Commune, in the world. On the occasion of 150 years of Paris Commune Revolution, the communist parties and Marxist scholars of various countries took a new look at the significance of Paris Commune from the following aspects.
First, it is affirmed that the Paris Commune enriched the connotation of Marxism and promoted the development of scientific socialism. The Paris Commune, which wrote a glorious, great and tragic page in the history of the International Communist Movements and opened up a new stage in world history and proletarian revolution,1 provided valuable experience and lessons for the international socialist movements, enriched the Marxist theory of proletarian revolution and proletarian dictatorship, and played an important role in the history of Marxist thought and socialist development.
Second, the Paris Commune was hailed as a flower of light, a rehearsal for the Russian October Revolution and the Soviet regime. Comrade Mao Zedong treated the Paris Commune as the “bright flower,” and saw the Russian Revolution as the “happy fruit” of it—the Russian Revolution is the successor of the Paris Commune.2 Lenin regarded the Soviet as the inheritor and developer of the spirit of the Paris Commune. And French scholars argue that without the experiments of the Paris Commune, Bolshevism probably would not have existed in its present form.3
Third, people should remember the lessons of the failure of the Paris Commune while adhering to the principles of the Paris Commune. Marx once said: “The principles of the Commune were eternal and could not be crushed; they would assert themselves again and again until the working classes were emancipated.”4 The painful lessons of the failure of the Paris Commune remind us that the establishment and correct leadership of the communist party is the fundamental guarantee for the proletariat and the vast working masses to obtain complete liberation and realize their great historical mission.5
1.2. Reflect on the Causes of the Collapse of the Soviet Union and Remember the Lessons of History
The disintegration of the Soviet Union is a tragic event in the history of the International Communist Movements in the 20th century. On the 30th anniversary of the collapse of the Soviet Union, communists and theorists in China, Vietnam and many countries in the area belonging to former Soviet Union have deeply reflected on its causes and lessons.
1.2.1. There Are Many Reasons Leading to the Disintegration of the Soviet Union, among which Ideology Plays an Important Role
The reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union are widely believed to be manifold. In a series of articles published in the People’s Army Newspaper, the official newspaper of the Central Military Commission of Vietnam, the Soviet Union’s disintegration was mainly attributed to five reasons: first, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union voluntarily gave up its leadership of the country and society; second, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union appointed the wrong people to lead the Party and the country; third, the thought of members and cadres of the Communist Party seriously degenerated; fourth, the ideological front of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was too lax to maintain vigilance against external infiltration and allowed historical nihilism to make waves; and, fifth, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union gave up its leadership of the army, which failed to uphold the Party’s authority at a critical time.6
Gennady Zyuganov, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, emphasizing the Soviet leaders’ personal reasons, stressed, “The destruction of the Soviet Union was not due to objective historical reasons. The death of a great nation is man-made. The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the members of his inner circle and other senior cadres directly betrayed the motherland and the socialist cause.”7 Hans Modrow, the last Chancellor of the former German Democratic Republic, noted that Gorbachev’s negative attitude towards the German Democratic Republic led to its demise.8
1.2.2. The Disintegration of the Soviet Union Caused Serious Consequences and Left a Painful Lesson for World Socialism
The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union triggered a comprehensive crisis in economy, politics, nationality and society, which plunged the whole country into an extremely serious state of loss of control, made the International Communist Movements suffer an unprecedented setback and fall into a long-term trough. The theories of “the end of history,” “socialist failure” etc. were rampant.
For the reasons and lessons of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, General Secretary of Communist Party of China, Comrade Xi Jinping has made a profound summary: “Why did the Soviet Union collapse? Why did the Communist Party of Soviet Union fall? An important reason is that the struggle in the field of ideology is very fierce. Historical nihilism, including the total denial of the Soviet history, the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the denial of Lenin, and the denial of Stalin, had confused thinking and rendered Party organizations at all levels almost useless, even the military was no longer under the leadership of the Party. In the end, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a big party broke up and the Soviet Union as a big socialist country fell apart. This is a cautionary lesson!”9 The Communist Party of China has earnestly learned these lessons, constantly consolidated its leading position, always stressed the absolute leadership of the Party over the armed forces, attached long-term importance to ideological education of Party members and cadres, and maintained the Party’s advanced nature and revolutionary nature, so as to safeguard the security of the socialist system.
1.3. The Revolutionary Spirit and Ideological Light of the Historical Figures of the International Communist Movements Should Be Activated
1.3.1. Review on the Revolutionary Character of Luxembourg and the Light of the Times of Her Ideas and Theories
March 5, 2021 marks the 150th anniversary of Rosa Luxemburg’s birth. As the leader of the International Communist Movements, revolutionary activist and theorist, Luxembourg wrote a glorious chapter of a great communist soldier with her short revolutionary life. Lenin said of her: “She was—and remains for us—an eagle. And not only will Communists all over the world cherish her memory, but her biography and her complete works . . . will serve as useful manuals for training many generations of Communists all over the world.”10
Rosa Luxemburg put forward a series of theories and propositions which are rich in historical and epochal values. These contributions are mainly as follows. First, she had carried on the profound explanation to the socialist democratic thought and proposed that the essence of socialism is democracy, and socialism and democracy cannot be separated. Second, she deeply exposed the errors of the revisionist trend of thought raised by Bernstein and clarified the essential difference between “reform” and “revolution.” Third, she analysed the causes of the crisis of capitalism and explained the inevitability of the end of capitalism. Fourth, she criticized the nature of imperialist war and advocated that the proletariat should consciously oppose imperialist war. Fifth, she emphasized the leading role of the revolutionary party in the mass movement and proposed that the mass strike, which is “the living pulse-beat of the revolution” and “its most powerful driving wheel,” is the phenomenal form of the proletarian struggle in the revolution and the summation of a long period of class struggle.11 Sixth, she urged workers of all nations to unite against a common enemy, calling on “proletarians of the world, unite!” It can be seen that though 150 years have passed, Rosa Luxemburg’s ideas and theories still shine with the light of the times.
1.3.2. A New Understanding of the Significance of Antonio Gramsci’s Historical Position and Thought of Cultural Leadership in New Era
On the 130th anniversary of the birth of Antonio Gramsci, the founder of the Italian Communist Party, scholars shed new light on his historical position and important ideas: First, Gramsci’s important position in the history of Italian and International Communist Movements were recognized. Italian scholars believed that Gramsci was not only the leader of the Italian Communist Party, but also a thinker and revolutionary intellectual, who was “an unsurmountable horizon of their times.”12 Russian scholars pointed out that “in the Soviet Union Gramsci was not known as a thinker and ideologist. . . . He was seen more as a politician and an anti-fascist fighter.”13 Chinese scholars generally regarded Gramsci as one of the founders of Western Marxism and European communism. Second, scholars made new evaluation on Gramsci’s main viewpoints. They focused on Gramsci’s thought of cultural leadership, and believed that Gramsci not only enriched and developed Marx’s concept of the state, but also paid more attention to the non-compulsory way to obtain the voluntary recognition of the public. That made him quite different from Lenin. 14 Some scholars believed that Gramsci called Marxist philosophy “practical philosophy,” with the purpose of letting the proletariat seize the leadership of cultural ideology.15 Russian scholars analysed the causes of the disintegration of the Soviet Union with Gramsci’s thought of cultural leadership, and believed that it was the “Democrats” who, drop by drop, eroded and destroyed the cultural leadership of the ruling class of the Soviet Union, so that the bourgeoisie regained power in the process of the coup.16 In today’s new media era, Gramsci’s thought of cultural leadership gives us new enlightenment, that we should take new media as the main battlefield of cultural leadership.
2. Socialist Countries Sum up Their Successful Experience and Plan the Blueprint for Development in the New Era
In 2021, socialist countries such as China, Vietnam, Cuba, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Laos all held important events to fully demonstrate the vitality of the socialist system.
2.1. The Communist Party of China Celebrates Its Centenary, Boosting Global Confidence in Socialism
July 1, 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China. Amid the grand celebration of the centennial anniversary, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held a comprehensive review of the Party’s century-old development process, achievements and experience, and declared that China will complete building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and embark on a new journey to fully build a modern socialist country.
2.1.1. The Development, Practical Experience and Theoretical Achievements of the Communist Party of China in Its One-Hundred-Year History
The Communist Party of China has a fine tradition that the Party especially cherishes its history of struggle, and is good at drawing momentum and defining the direction of its struggle from historical experience.17 In the Speech at the Ceremony Marking the Centenary of the Communist Party of China, the General Secretary Xi Jinping first proposed the great founding spirit of the Party, which is comprised of the following principles: “upholding truth and ideals, staying true to our original aspiration and founding mission, fighting bravely without fear of sacrifice, and remaining loyal to the Party and faithful to the people,”18 and the “Nine Musts principle,” which means: We must uphold the firm leadership of the Party; We must unite and lead the Chinese people in working ceaselessly for a better life; We must continue to adapt Marxism to the Chinese context; We must uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics; We must accelerate the modernization of national defence and the armed forces; We must continue working to promote the building of a human community with a shared future; We must carry out a great struggle with many contemporary features; We must strengthen the great unity of the Chinese people; We must continue to advance the great new project of Party building.19 The resolution of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee further summarizes the historical experience of the Party’s centenary struggle into the “Ten Points,” which includes upholding the Party’s leadership, putting the people first; advancing theoretical innovation; staying independent; following the Chinese path; maintaining a global vision; breaking new ground; standing up for ourselves; promoting the united front; remaining committed to self-reform.20 They are not only experience summaries of why Socialism with Chinese Characteristics could succeed, but also guides to action for building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics.
The “Communiqué of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China”21 divides the centennial historical course of the CPC into “Four Historical Periods”, which means the period of the new-democratic revolution, the period of socialist revolution and construction, the period of reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, and the new era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. The Communiqué also deeply summarizes the “main tasks” of the four historical stages, as well as the four “great successes” we have achieved and the four “great transformations” made by the people under the Party’s leadership. The century-long history of the Party is a history of constantly adapting the basic tenets of Marxism to China’s specific realities and China’s fine traditional culture. The continuous promotion of the theoretical innovation in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context is one of important historical laws of adapting Marxism to the Chinese context.
2.1.2. The Achievements Made by the Communist Party of China in the Past 100 Years Have Won Praise from Various Countries around the World and Boosted Confidence in World Socialism
On the occasion of its centenary, the Communist Party of China received more than 1,300 congratulatory messages and letters from political parties around the world, including more than 150 heads of state and government and more than 200 major leaders of political parties.22 Foreign left-wing scholars and theorists have also published articles to celebrate. The letters and articles congratulated and appreciated the brilliant achievements of the Party in its century-long struggle and the important achievements made since the 18th National Congress of the Party, and they also expressed the hope that socialism with Chinese characteristics will play an even greater leading role in the development of world socialism. They could be summarized as the following ten aspects.
First, the achievements made by the Party in the past 100 years and their great significance were highly praised. Zyuganov warmly praised the Party’s journey as the “glorious road of struggle and victory” and pointed out that the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, which is of great historical significance, is the wealth of the Chinese people and mankind.23 Second, the Party has been praised for its capacity for leadership and governance. Some British scholars have pointed out that Chinese leaders such as Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, and up to Xi Jinping all have exceptional political leadership. The Communist Party of China has done a very good job in self-innovation and self-reconstruction, and has managed to build a talented leadership team and a group of governance talents.24 Third, China’s modernization has opened up a new form of human civilization. A Brazilian scholar noted that China has finally succeeded in blazing a new Chinese path to modernization. In the future, China will continue to lead human history through a more inclusive model of modernization.25 Fourth, China’s people-cantered philosophy of development has set an example for the international community. National Secretary of Italian Communist Party Mauro Alboresi, believes that the Communist Party of China, which puts people-first and people-centered philosophy as its governing principle, sets a very good example for other governing parties in the world.26 Fifth, China’s poverty alleviation has made great contributions to the international community and won widespread praise. Various countries around the world agree that China’s poverty alleviation has achieved comprehensive success, and that China’s achievements in poverty alleviation have contributed greatly to global poverty reduction and provided experience for other countries.27 Sixth, various countries around the world agree that building a community with a shared future for mankind is of great significance to world peace and development. Mr. Alboresi speaks highly of the significance of the Belt and Road Initiative in achieving peaceful development, and believes the vision of a community with a shared future for mankind is an important contribution made by the Communist Party of China to the world. Seventh, Socialism with Chinese Characteristics embodies the important value of Marxism. Juha-Pekka Vaisa, Chairperson of the Communist Party of Finland, said that the whole-process people’s democracy, which is proposed and developed by the Communist Party of China, could ensure that it is the people who run the country. The whole-process people’s democracy is of great significance for upholding and developing Marxism. Eighth, many countries praised the success of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for enhancing the appeal of socialism in the world. Patrik Kobele, General Secretary of the German Communist Party, stressed that the centenary struggle of the Communist Party of China has made great historical contributions to the International Communist Movements, promoted the development of the world’s progressive cause, and encouraged them to summarize and learn from China’s successful experience, and then it reveals the new attraction of socialism through theoretical thinking.28 Nineth, the achievements of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics win praise because they have changed the balance of power between the two systems in the world and made great contributions to the International Communist Movements. Bulgarian scholars pointed out that the Communist Party of China was the mainstay of the International Communist Movements.29 Adan Chavez, Vice President of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, said that the achievements and practical experience of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in the New Era have brought hope to people around the world who look forward to socialism.30 Tenth, it is pointed out that the experience of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics can be used as a reference for other countries. Phouvong Ounkhamsaen, President of the Lao National Academy of Political and Public Administration, said the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party deeply admires the glorious history and great achievements of the Communist Party of China as a century-old party, and attaches great importance to learning from the Communist Party of China’s development experience.31
2.2. In Vietnam, the Rotation of The Leaders of the Party and the State Were Accomplished and a New View of Socialist Theory Was Put forward
The 13th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam was held in January 2021. On the basis of summarizing the achievements and experience of 35 years of innovation, this conference proposed to strengthen the direction of socialist development, and formulated a grand blueprint for Vietnam to develop into a socialist-oriented developed country by the middle of the 21st century in accordance with the “three-step” and “two-centennial” plans.
The congress elected Nguyen Phu Trong for a third term as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam Central Committee, and elected a new Central Committee consisting of 180 members and 20 alternate members, an 18-member Political Bureau, a 12-member Secretariat and a 19-member Central Inspection Commission. The average age of the current Central Committee members is 53.8 years old, 1.3 years higher than the previous ones whose average age is 52.5 years, and the preference for younger cadres in Vietnam has been replaced by “putting morality first” principle in the election process.
On May 23, 2021, 499 deputies to the 15th National Assembly and People’s Councils at all levels for the 2021–2026 tenure were elected at the same time. On July 20, 2021, the first session of the 15th National Assembly of Vietnam convened and elected Vuong Dinh Hue as Chairman of the National Assembly, Nguyen Xuan Phuc as the State President and Pham Minh Chinh as the Prime Minister. At this point, the rotation of the leaders of Vietnamese party and state were accomplished.
On May 16, 2021, Nguyen Phu Trong, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, published an important theoretical article titled “Some Theoretical and Practical Issues on Socialism and the Path towards Socialism in Vietnam,”32 which comprehensively explained the understanding of the current development path of world socialism and socialism in Vietnam. The article mainly contains four parts. First, it explains the understanding of the current capitalist system and the essence of socialism, and puts forward that the inherent contradiction of capitalism has not changed fundamentally and socialism is the goal and value that they pursue. Second, the article reviews the more than 90-year successful course of the Communist Party of Vietnam and points out that the socialist road is the choice made by Vietnamese history and Vietnamese people. Third, it expounds the connotation and characteristics of Vietnamese socialism and answers the question of what kind of socialism to build and how to build socialism. Fourth, the article summarizes the practical achievements and problems of socialist innovation in Vietnam. It emphasizes that Marxism-Leninism and the Ho Chi Minh’s Thought have the scientific and uncompromising revolutionary nature and are enduring values. The Communist Party of Vietnam must unswervingly adhere to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological foundation.
In promoting innovation, on the one hand, the Communist Party of Vietnam continues to strengthen Party building and rectification, and push forward the fight against corruption. On the other hand, Vietnam’s new government leaders have adjusted their anti-epidemic measures. Starting from October 2021, Vietnam changed the strategy policy from “Zero COVID” to “safe and flexible adaptation and effective control of the COVID-19 pandemic,”33 and adopted measures to implement the 2022 economic and social development plan. As of the end of December 2021, the cumulative confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Vietnam reached 1.74 million, and the death toll exceeded 32,000.34 The annual economic growth rate dropped to 2.58 percent.35
Since the beginning of 2022, the Vietnamese government has gradually lifted the disease resistance measures and started to welcome international tourists in mid-March. Vietnam’s economy achieved a recovery growth rate of more than 5% in the first quarter of 2022. The number of people infected with the virus decreased from over 100,000 per day at the peak in March to several thousand cases per day in early May. The economy is expected to be better in 2022 than in 2021, but the impact of the pandemic is far from being eliminated. Vietnam’s socialism still faces many challenges, including fluctuations in both economic and ideological fields.
2.3. The Communist Party of Cuba Held Its 8th National Congress to Refine and Update Its Ideas and Successfully Meet Ideological Challenges
The 8th National Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba was held in Havana in April 2021. At the Congress, important issues such as “phased achievements and challenges of the Cuban model update” and “economic and social development plan for 2030” were discussed. Miguel Díaz-Canel succeeded Raul Modesto Castro Ruz as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba. At the same time, 96 members of the Central Committee, 14 members of the Politburo, six members of the Secretariat were elected. Thus, the generational changes of the Party’s leadership have been achieved.
In the “Central Report to the 8th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba”36, Raul stressed that the model update must adhere to the political bottom line of socialist principles and direction. He deeply reflected on the overall lagging situation of the update, and sharply criticized the position, viewpoint and method problems existing in the update. The 8th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba adopted the Resolution on the Updating of the Conceptualization of the Cuban Economic and Social Model of Socialist Development,37 which elaborated on the important theoretical issues and concepts related to Cuba’s socialist road. First, the updated Conceptualization ratifies that Cuban society is in a historical period of construction of socialism. Second, it consolidates the role of the people’s socialist ownership of the fundamental means of production, recognizes and diversifies different forms of property with appropriately interrelated management, and calls for the comprehensive improvement of the system of planned direction of economic and social development. Third, the Cuban society recognizes, regulates and achieves an adequate functioning of the market to ensure that it could interact with centralized administrative measures, macroeconomic policies and other policies. Fourth, the Cuban society will induce economic actors to make decisions in accordance with the interests of society as a whole.
The 8th Congress of Communist Party of Cuba emphasized the improvement of the ability of Party members and cadres to safeguard the ideological security of the country. According to the resolution, the Communist Party of Cuba should resolutely combat and prevent corruption crimes, strengthen the Party’s function construction, make Party members and cadres always maintain a revolutionary attitude when facing problems, and improve their ability to analyse and solve problems. In the face of capitalist and neoliberal counterattacks, political and ideological work in Cuba has become increasingly important, and social networks and the Internet have become the main battleground of ideological confrontation.
A protest march took place around Havana, Cuba, on July 11, 2021. Miguel Díaz-Canel went to the scene of the protest and made an important speech. He pointed out that the incident was part of the subversive plan of the United States government to carry out “unconventional warfare” against Cuba for a long time. And there was solid evidence that it was a counterrevolutionary rebellion jointly instigated by the anti-Cuba forces in Miami and the reactionaries in Cuba, and financed by the United States government. Miguel Díaz-Canel called on Cuban Communists and Cubans to take to the streets to defend the revolution. The response of the Cuban government had achieved positive results, quickly snuffed out the subversive and anti-government activities and safeguarded national security.
In terms of economic and social development, the Cuban government has carried out structural reforms such as currency consolidation, and introduced economic policies such as promoting food production and sales, encouraging exports, and restarting tourism. The Cuban economy returned to growth in the last three quarters of 2021, reaching a growth rate of 2% in 2021, but inflation was over 70%.38 In the context of COVID-19 control, Cuba has implemented a mass vaccination program for adolescents and a booster vaccination program for all citizens. As of February 3, 2022, Cuba had the third highest COVID-19 vaccination rate in the world, with 86.87% of the total population being fully vaccinated.39 The number of new confirmed cases and deaths has continued to decline.
2.4. The Workers’ Party of Korea Held Its 8th National Congress, Focusing on Economic Development and People’s Livelihood
The Workers’ Party of Korea (WPK) held the 8th National Congress in January 2021. At the Congress, a new Party Constitution was adopted. The Constitution reaffirms the Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism as the guiding ideology of the Party, and the supreme program of the Party is to fulfil Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism in the whole society. The meeting clearly took “the People-First Principle” as the basic political policy of the Party, and stressed that the ideals of “the People are God” and “the People-First Principle” are the basic thought and spirit of the 8th Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea. The 8th National Congress decided to restore the system of the General Secretary and the Secretariat. Comrade Kim Jong Un was elected as the General Secretary of the Party. The Congress also elected five members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, 19 members of the Political Bureau and 11 alternate members of the Political Bureau, 139 members of the Central Committee and 111 alternate members of the Central Committee. The 8th Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea comprehensively summarized the implementation of the five-year strategy for economic development of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea from 2016 to 2020 and drew up the goals of the new five-year plan. It is worth noting that at this congress, Kim Jong Un, the leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, openly admitted that the strategic goals of the past five years have not been achieved and made criticism, which reflects his spirit of pragmatism.
In order to promote economic development, the 8th Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea set up the Economic Department of the Party Central Committee and Economic Policy Office of the Party Central Committee to coordinate and study the Party’s economic policy and continued to emphasize “self-reliance” and “self-sufficiency.” According to the “Voluntary National Review on the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda” submitted by the Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to the United Nations for the first time in June 2021, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s gross domestic product (GDP) reached 33.504 billion U.S. dollars in 2019, or per capita GDP exceeded 1,200 U.S. dollars.40
At the 8th Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea, Kim Jong Un defined the overall direction of the country’s foreign policy as providing political and diplomatic guarantees for socialist construction. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea will further develop its traditional friendly relations with socialist countries, such as China, Vietnam, Cuba and Laos, in an effort to strengthen the overall strength of the socialist team. He especially stressed the traditional friendly and cooperative relations between China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and promoted bilateral strategic cooperation. It is worth noting that although Kim Jong Un stressed at the 8th Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea will deal with the U.S. under the principle that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea would meet force with force while meet good will with good will, he said in his commemorative speech at the Defence Development Exhibition “Self-Defence–2021” in October 2021, “Our arch-enemy is the war itself, not South Korea, the United States or any other specific state or forces.”41 It is clear that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea seeks peace through struggle and shows its expectation for peaceful development.
2.5. The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party Held Its 11th National Congress and Made Significant Progress in Building a Community of Shared Future between China and Laos
The 11th National Congress of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party was held in January 2021. The congress summarized the experience of reforms and adopted the ninth Five-Year Plan, defining the goals and tasks of economic and social development for the next five years.
The Party summarized four experiences from reform practices since its 10th National Congress: first, the Party has strengthened its self-building and continuously improved the ability of leadership; second, the Party focuses on the development of advantageous industries and characteristic economy to enhance the ability of independent development; third, the Party effectively develops human resources; fourth, the Party members strictly implement the Party’s principles and decisions, and coordinate with each other to promote practical work. The key tasks for Laos’ reforms in the next five years are as follows: first, they will mobilize the enthusiasm and creativity of the general public and foster a sense of independent development; second, they will change the ideology of cadres and masses, and reform systems and mechanisms; third, they will vigorously implement scientific and technological innovation to enhance the endogenous driving force of development; fourth, they will safeguard national sovereignty and security and contribute to regional and world peace and stability; fifth, they will cultivate a healthy lifestyle and actively overcome the impact of infectious diseases and natural disasters on economic and social development. There are eight reform policies and measures in Laos. First, under the socialist-oriented market economy system, Laos will strengthen state-owned enterprises, develop the characteristic economy, and implement the policy of independent, green, sustainable and high-quality development. Second, Laos will strengthen cultural development, carry forward the fine traditions of the nation, and build a modern civilized society that is democratic, equal, fair and just. Third, Laos will reform systems and mechanisms to build a clean, efficient and law-based service-oriented government. Fourth, Laos will continue to promote the “Three Builds” project, which aims to build up provinces as strategy-making units, districts as comprehensively strengthened units, and villages as development units.42 Fifth, Laos will implement the established line of national defence and public security to maintain national and social stability. Sixth, Laos will strengthen Party building, adhere to and consolidate the leadership of the Party, raise the level of Marxism-Leninism theory of Party members and cadres, and apply and develop the thought of Kaysone Phomvihane. Seventh, Laos will strengthen the cadre team construction, adhere to the principle of placing cadres under Party supervision, and strengthen their sense of responsibility and mission. Eighth, Laos will develop external relations in a proactive manner and integrate ourselves into regional and international integration and development processes.
In 2021, facing the severe situation of COVID-19, the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party strengthened the centralized and unified leadership of the Party, and launched a people’s war against the epidemic while ensuring economic development. The annual growth rate reached 3.5%, which is a relatively high economic growth rate.43 It is especially worth celebrating that the China-Laos Railway was completed and started to operate at the end of 2021, which marks historic progress in building a China-Laos community of shared future. The China-Laos Railway is the first standard-gauge railway in Laos and the first overseas railway which China’s national railway network directly connects with. The completion and operation of the China-Laos Railway symbolize the transformation of Laos from a landlocked country to a land-linked country. It will play a huge role in promoting the economic and social development of Laos, enrich the content of successful cooperation between socialist countries, and become a model of cooperation between socialist countries in the world.
3. The Non-Ruling Communist Parties Review Their Bumpy Course and Actively Respond to Realistic Challenges to Seek Space for Survival and Development
3.1. Communist Parties in Many Countries Held Activities to Commemorate the Centenary of Their Founding, and Summarized Experience in Struggle and Strengthening Ideals and Convictions
When the Communist Party of China was established in 1921, Communists in many other countries, including Romania, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Canada, Luxembourg, South Africa etc., also established their own Marxist parties in the same year. On the occasion of the centenary of the founding of their own Marxist parties, the communist parties around the world had held a variety of commemorative activities to reflect on the struggle strategies under the current new situation and review the historical experience and lessons. On May 8, 2021, the Communist Party of Romania published an article to commemorate the 100th anniversary of its founding, recall the major achievements of the socialist period, and clarify the claim that it would work to strengthen cooperation at home and abroad in the future. June 26, 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of Slovakia. The Party published an article summarizing the triple historical significance of the Party’s activities in the past hundred years, including leading the working-class struggle which achieved results, leading the anti-fascist resistance movements, and promoting the unprecedented development of Slovak and Czech society. At the same time, the Party clarified its understanding of the current world situation, advocated adherence to Marxism-Leninism ideology, and actively propagated its program and ideas to the masses. The Portuguese Communist Party marked its centenary by issuing leaflets to affirm its permanent commitment to being a workers’ party. Jeronimo de Sousa, General Secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party, made an important speech in which he reiterated the firm belief of the Party and made it clear that it would continue to fight for democracy and the construction of a communist society. Enrique Santiago, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain, pointed out in his speech at the Party’s centennial congress that the Party would build the broadest social consensus around the ideas of openness, pluralism and equality, strive to achieve the greatest solidarity with the left and progressives, and work tirelessly for a bright future for the people, democracy and the world.44 Blade Nzimande, General Secretary of the South African Communist Party, delivered a speech titled “Put People Before Profit: Socialism Is the Future—Build It Now.” He reviewed the history and contributions of the past 100 years, and indicated that the Party would be committed to carrying out a broad people’s movement to eliminate the legacy of racist oppression, and always putting people above interests.45 In addition, the Communist Parties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Italy, Belgium, Canada and other countries have also organized various forms of centennial celebrations to express their belief in communism.
3.2. The Communist Parties in the Countries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern European Made Great Efforts to Get out of the Shadow of the Collapse of the Soviet Union and Actively Respond to New Challenges
3.2.1. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation Commemorates the Legacy of the Soviet Revolution and Seeks to Increase Its Political Influence
During the 30 years since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) has experienced violent confrontations, and has shown a gratifying momentum of development in recent years. In the 2021 election for the eighth State Duma of the Russian Federation, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation came in second place, owning 21% of the vote, more than 7 percentage points higher than the 13.3% in the previous term.46 In 2021, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation announced that the number of Party members was 162,000, representing a big increase compared with previous years. The 18th National Congress was held under the background of the 30th anniversary of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The political report of the Congress began with affirming the development achievements of the Party in the past 30 years, including the reconstruction of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and the persistence in the struggle, which saved many people from political persecution and even imprisonment, and also prevented Russia from falling into civil war. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation made clear its opposition to splitting history and insisted on inheriting the red gene of Communism. It hits back at the groundless accusations against the Soviet Union, and believes that the social system, political system, educational system, life values system and cultural type of the Soviet Union are the peak in Russian history.47 The Party also criticized the Russian capitalism, stressed that only socialism can make Russia free from the tyranny of capital, and expressed respect to the Communist Party of China and its great achievements in 100 years.
In the area of former Soviet Union, the Communist People’s Party of Kazakhstan changed its name to the People’s Party of Kazakhstan at the 15th National Congress held at the end of 2020. At the same time, the Party Constitution and Party Program were drastically adjusted, which greatly weakened its identity as a communist party. However, in the national elections in 2021, support for the Party increased from 7.1 percent and 7 seats in 2016 to 9.1 percent and 10 seats in 2021.48 The successful strategy of the People’s Party of Kazakhstan represents the adaptive transformation trend of some communist parties in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe countries.
3.2.2. The Communist Parties in Former Eastern European Countries Reaffirm the Principles of Marxism-Leninism and Seek Space for Survival in a Difficult Environment
In the more than 30 years since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the dramatic changes in Eastern Europe, the development of the communist parties in former Eastern European countries has lived through a difficult reconstruction period from the late 1980s to the early 1990s, and experienced a stable development period from the mid-1990s to the first decade of the 21st century. In the past decade, with populist parties coming to power, a new round of anti-Communist wave appeared in some countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and the communist movement in Central and Eastern Europe entered a development bottleneck. In recent years, the ruling populist parties in several countries have begun to encircle and suppress Communist parties and organizations. Poland’s new Criminal Code has made it illegal for people to display communist symbols or express communist ideas. Violation of the law is punishable by up to three years in prison.49
Against this backdrop, some parties continued to struggle and strive to break through the bottleneck to gain new space for development. These political parties organized many activities in 2021. First, many communist parties held activities to commemorate the centenary of their founding, reaffirm Marxism-Leninism principles and strengthen the socialist direction. In a commemorative article published on the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the Communist Party of Slovakia pointed out, “The world is undergoing tremendous and turbulent changes, which are a serious manifestation of the crises of the capitalist system. These crises are gradually creating new challenges and opportunities for new attempts at socialism.”50 Therefore, the communist parties should adhere to Marxism-Leninism ideology, and actively publicize its program and ideas to the masses as a progressive, revolutionary, organized and disciplined organization. Second, the communist parties took the epidemic to expose the ills of the capitalist system and safeguard the interests of the middle and lower classes of the society. With the spread of COVID-19 in Europe, communist parties in Central and Eastern Europe coordinated at the international level and spoke with one voice on the issue of fighting the epidemic. The New Communist Party of Yugoslavia noted that privatization had weakened the country’s educational and scientific potential and “left itself in a situation where it could not cope with the existing crisis.”51 The Socialist Workers Party of Croatia (SRPH) pointed out that capitalism is the most harmful virus.52 The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) has repeatedly called on the government to provide free vaccines to its citizens. The New Communist Party of Yugoslavia launched a petition to stop the privatization of Belgrade pharmacy. Third, these communist parties continued to oppose hegemonism and support the socialist cause of China and Cuba. The Communist Party of Slovakia believes that the United States has been a major cause of instability and suffering around the world. The presence of the U.S. and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) will only increase chaos and bring about the development of negative phenomena such as corruption and drug trafficking.53 During mass demonstrations in Cuba taking place in July 2021, the communist parties in Central and Eastern Europe also denounced the U.S. blockade and imperialist intervention in Cuba. On the occasion of the centenary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, the communist parties of Central and Eastern European countries extended heartfelt congratulations to the Communist Party of China. The New Communist Party of Yugoslavia proposed to President Aleksandar Vučić to establish a bust of Xi Jinping, the President of the People’s Republic of China, in the Friendship Park in Belgrade as a way to express its gratitude to China for its great help and contribution in the fight against the novel coronavirus in Serbia.54
3.3. The Parties Continued to Insist on a Combination of Struggle Inside and Outside Parliament, and Took on Some New Features
First, in some countries, the communist parties have joined forces with the left parties in the election to fight in a legal way. In recent years, Western left-wing parties have shown a return to the “traditional radical tendency of the left,” and European centre-left forces have recovered. Jonas Gahr Støre, Chairman of the Norwegian Labour Party, became the Prime Minister in Norway’s parliamentary elections in September 2021. On November 29, 2021, Magdalena Anderson was elected Prime Minister of Sweden, which means the Swedish Social Democratic Party could govern alone. In December 2021, Olaf Scholz, from the Social Democratic Party of German, became the country’s ninth post-World War II chancellor. In this context, in order to adapt to the situation, the communist parties in Western countries chose to join the left party campaign coalition. In the 2021 general election, the Communist Party of Chile joined the “Apruebo Dignidad” (I’m for dignity) electoral coalition, put forward leftist Gabriel Boric as their presidential candidate and successfully won the election. In Moldova’s national parliamentary elections taking place in July 2021, the Communist Party of Moldova formed a coalition with the Moldovan Socialist Party, winning 27 percent of the vote and 10 seats.55 In terms of results, 2021 was a year of mixed results for all parties. In some countries, their communist parties made progress. The Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ) won 28.8 percent of the vote in the municipal elections in Graz, Austria’s second largest city, and Elke Kahr, an Austrian Communist councilwoman, became the mayor. The Communist Party of Chile won seven seats in the May 2021 election for the country’s Constituent Assembly, with Iraci Hassler, a female member elected Mayor of the Capital, Santiago, and Daniel Jadue re-elected as Mayor of the Recoleta Region.56 On the other hand, the communist parties in some countries lost power or participation in politics. For example, the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) won a total of 10 seats in the general election of the lower house of the National Diet of Japan (one seat less than last time). The Italian Communist Party won less than 1% of the vote in Italian local elections. In the 2021 Czech general election, the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia won only 3.6 percent of the vote, falling short of the 5 percent threshold and losing all its seats. In 2017, it won 7.8 percent (15 seats).
Second, the communist parties of various countries actively promoted international alliances and participated in trade unions and social movements to strengthen their ranks. In December 2021, 73 communist parties and workers’ parties from 57 countries participated in the Extraordinary Tele- Conference of the International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties, which was jointly organized by the Communist Party of Greece and the Communist Party of Turkey. The parties called for seizing the moment of the COVID-19 outbreak to enhance the organizational capacity of the working class, and unite all possible forces to fight for the protection of human rights and the construction of a new socialist and communist society. In December 2021, the fifth meeting of the European Left Forum was held in Brussels. Many European communist parties participated in the meeting and discussed the major challenges faced by Europe and the issues of economy and society in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, some communist parties also took active part in mass movements, promoted the development of Western social movements and the socialist concept into the hearts of the people. Labour movements were also active in Europe and North America, which saw a number of large strikes in 2021.
Third, the communist parties of many countries continued to expose the abuses of the capitalist system and strengthened their solidarity with the governing parties in socialist countries. In the face of the continuing COVID-19 pandemic, communist parties around the world continued to expose and criticize capitalism in depth on the one hand. On the other hand, they made new reflections on alternatives to capitalism. The communist parties of Western countries actively supported Cuba, and spoke highly of the achievements of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and the role of the Communist Party of China in the International Communist Movements. The Communist Party of the United States highly praised China, Cuba and other socialist countries for their active responses to the epidemic, and believed that China’s actions “represent a major contribution to the global fight against COVID-19, boosting the hope and confidence of countries that they too can win this battle.”57
4. Summary and Prospects
One hundred years ago, under the guidance of the October Revolution, a large number of communist parties, including the Communist Party of China, were founded. The Soviet Union’s socialism under the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had made an indelible contribution to the development of world socialism. However, with the joint action of many reasons, this model finally led to the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In the past 30 years, the socialist countries and the communist parties around the world have deeply reflected and realized that the collapse of the Soviet Union only represented the end of the Soviet model, not the end of world socialism!
The governing parties in socialist countries such as China, Vietnam, Cuba, North Korea and Laos, withstood the sharp impact of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the bottom period of the world socialist movements. These socialist countries, by seriously reflecting on and drawing lessons from the collapse of the Soviet Union, have adhered to the path of socialist development, and combined Marxism-Leninism with their own practices. And by carrying out socialist reform or innovation with their own characteristics, they have successfully explored their own paths of socialist development that suit their own characteristics and the requirements of the times. Thirty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, China, Vietnam and other socialist countries have achieved great success in their reforms. The glorious achievements of the Communist Party of China in the past 100 years, the continuous development of other socialist countries, and the persistence of the Western communist parties in exploring the path of socialist development in the new century have proved that socialism has strong vitality. At the same time, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the upheavals in Eastern European socialist countries did not mean the demise of communist movements and ideas in the region. On the contrary, the communist parties in Russia and Central and Eastern European countries were reinvigorated after the 1990s to explore their own paths of socialism in the new century in various ways. It has been proved that the theory of “end of history” has come to its end, and socialism will remain the alternative to capitalism.
However, what is alarming is that while the collapse of the Soviet Union allowed the West to celebrate the achievements of its “Cold War,” the strategy of “peaceful evolution” pursued by the West has never rested. The bourgeoisie and imperialism have never given up interfering with and splitting the communist movements. Thus, the socialist countries are still fighting against the infiltration, westernization and differentiation of the bourgeoisie.
At present, with the continuous development of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, the United States is trying its best to contain China in order to maintain its hegemony in the world. In addition to the unilateral imposition of high tariffs and technology containment on China, the U.S. has also promoted anti-China alliances around the world. On December 9 and 10, 2021, more than 100 countries were invited by the United States to participate in “The Summit for Democracy” videoconference, excluding China and Russia. At the same time, the Western countries led by the United States have promoted their values of the so-called “democracy” and “human rights,” and carried out ideological divisions and attacks on the socialist countries. In terms of policies towards China, the United States and the West stirred up disputes in Hong Kong and Xinjiang. In terms of policies towards Cuba, the United States imposed a long-term blockade that caused huge economic losses and attempted to launch a colour revolution against Cuba. In terms of policies towards Vietnam, the United States’ long-term infiltration activities led to the “self-evolution” and “self-transformation” of some members and cadres of the Communist Party of Vietnam, which threatened the survival of the Communist Party of Vietnam and Vietnamese socialism. In Laos, the United States and the West infiltrated some members and cadres of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party through religion and non-governmental organizations, causing ideological confusion. In confronting North Korea, for a long time, the United States has never stopped its strategic attacks and economic blockade against this country. In the West, the communist movements have been suppressed and restricted in various ways. In many countries, communist parties even remain illegal. Thus, their activities are frequently disrupted, and communists often face political persecution.
The tortuous history of the communist movements in the past hundred years and the development trend of socialism in the world show that the development and growth of the socialist system and the power of the proletariat, represented by China, and the continued decline of the Western capitalist system, represented by the United States, are both evident. The Resolution adopted at the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China pointed out: “Our continued success in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of our times has enabled Marxism to take on a fresh face in the eyes of the world, and significantly shifted the worldwide historical evolution of and contest between the two different ideologies and social systems of socialism and capitalism in a way that favours socialism.”58 However, the bourgeoisie, with its strength accumulated over hundreds of years, will not easily make compromises and concessions. In the foreseeable future, the struggle either between the two systems or between the two forces will continue, and the relationship between the two systems will remain the combination of competition and cooperation for a long time.
Since the outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine war in February 2022, the U.S.-Russia relations have completely broken down. This marked the failure of the plan of the United States and the West to successfully integrate the Soviet Union into the Western system only by launching “colour revolutions” 30 years ago. At present, under the circumstances of the competition between two systems and games among major countries, the relationships among countries have become more complicated. It is expected that with the continuation of the COVID-19 epidemic and the evolution of the Russia-Ukraine war, the threat of imperialist war will increase, and the development of the world’s socialist countries and the International Communist Movements will face a greater impact. However, the history and achievements of the Communist Party of China in the past 100 years will inspire the communist parties around the world to stay firm and continue to march towards a brilliant future.
This paper is the results of the research group of the Yellow Book of International Communist Movements (2021–2022). The moderator and author of this paper is Professor Pan Jin’e, Professor at the University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Director and Researcher of the Department of International Communist Movements Studies, Academy of Marxism, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
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43《2021年经济概况总结及2022年老挝经济展望》(Summary of Economic Profile 2021 and Laos Economic Outlook 2022). http://www.zgmh.net/Article_show.aspx?id=39960.
44于海青 (Yu Haiqing). 2022.《在砥砺奋进中探索前行——2021年外国共产党的新发展》(Exploring and Moving Forward in Sheer Endeavour: New Development of Foreign Communist Parties in 2021).《当代世界》(Contemporary World), vol.2022, no. 2, pp. 58–63.
46郭春生 (Guo Chunsheng). 2022.《苏联解体30年背景下的俄罗斯联邦共产党》(The Communist Party of the Russian Federation in the Context of the Collapse of the Soviet Union 30 Years Ago).《国外社会科学前沿 》(Journal of International Social Sciences), vol. 2022, no. 4, pp. 3–13.
47“Политический отчёт Центрального Комитета КПРФ XVIII съезду партии” (The Political Report of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Russian Federation to the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of Russian Federation). https://kprf.ru/party-live/cknews/201822.html.
48于海青 (Yu Haiqing). 2022.《在砥砺奋进中探索前行——2021年外国共产党的新发展》(Exploring and Moving Forward in Sheer Endeavour: New Development of Foreign Communist Parties in 2021).《当代世界》(Contemporary World),vol. 2022, no. 2, pp. 58–63.
49“Protest at the Polish Embassy Against the Persecution of Communists.” https://www.voorwaarts.net/protest-at-the-polish-embassy-against-the-persecution-of-communists/?lang=en/.
50“Existenciu a činnosť Komunistickej Strany v Československu nie je Možné Hodnotiť len Negatívne” (The Existence and Functioning of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia Cannot Be Assessed Only Negative). http://kss.sk/existenciu-a-cinnost-komunistickej-strany-v-ceskoslovensku-nie-je-mozne-hodnotit-len-negativne.
51“Na Talasu Nove Recesije – U Odbraun RandiČkih Prava” (At Talas of New Recession). https://nkpj.org.rs/2020/11/30/na-talasu-nove-recesije-u-odbranu-radnickih-prava/.
52“Kapitalizam, Najgori od Svih Virusa” (Capitalism, the Worst of All Viruses). http://www.srp.hr/kapitalizam-najgori-od-svih-virusa/.
53“Stanovisko KSS k Situácií v Afganistane” (KSS Opinion on Situations in Afghanistan). http://kss.sk/stanovisko-kss-k-situacii-v-afganistane.
54“NKPJ Predala Zahtev Vučiću za Podizanje Biste Si Đinpingu” (NKPJ Submitted a Request for a Lifting Train). https://nkpj.org.rs/2021/04/23/nkpj-predala-zahtev-vucicu-za-podizanje-biste-si-dinpingu/.
55于海青 (Yu Haiqing). 2022.《在砥砺奋进中探索前行——2021年外国共产党的新发展》(Exploring and Moving Forward in Sheer Endeavour: New Development of Foreign Communist Parties in 2021).《当代世界》(Contemporary World), vol. 2022, no. 2, pp. 58–63.
56徐世澄 (Xu Shicheng). 2022. 《拉美国家共产党的新探索与新发展》(New Exploration and Development of Communist Parties in Latin American Countries). 《国外理论动态》(Foreign Theoretical Trends), vol. 2022, no.1.
57“U.S. Communists Join 230+ Global Political Parties Calling for International COVID-19 Cooperation.” https://www.peoplesworld.org/article/u-s-communists-join-230-global-political-parties-calling-for-international-covid-19-cooperation/.
58《中共中央关于党的百年奋斗重大成就和历史经验的决议》(Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century). 2021, pp. 63–64. Beijing: People’s Publishing House.
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